This is NMN, namely nicotinamide mononucleotide.
In 2002, David A. Sinclair, a tenured professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, found that a component called NAD+plays a key role in cell aging. NAD+is an important coenzyme involved in a variety of physiological activities in the organism, which is involved in energy supply and DNA repair. However, with the growth of age, the level of NAD+in the body will decline year by year.
The content of NAD+in the body will decrease by 50% every 20 years
To delay aging, improving the level of NAD+in the body is the key. However, the molecular weight of NAD+is large, and exogenous NAD+is difficult to be directly absorbed and utilized by the human body. However, various precursor substances that supplement NAD+can be absorbed to varying degrees and converted into NAD+in the body.
NMN is one of the key precursors of NAD+. This year, NMN passed the registration application for new cosmetics raw materials of the Drug Administration, and many companies on the market quickly followed up the research and development of related products, flocking to this blue ocean.
So, when this magic ingredient is used in skin care products, can it also delay aging and rejuvenate the skin? Let's start from the mechanism of NMN itself to see whether we should spend a lot of money for such skin care products.
How does NMN delay aging?
In mammals, NMN is generated by nicotinamide under the catalysis of Nampt, and then NMN generates NAD+under the catalysis of Nmnat, thus activating the NAD+substrate-dependent enzyme Sirt1 (commonly known as longevity protein), regulating cell survival and death, maintaining redox status, and exerting anti-aging effect.
The process of converting NMN into NAD+in vivo
At present, most of the anti-aging studies of NMN in the academic circle are animal experiments and in vitro experiments. It has a very good anti-aging effect in animal experiments.
For example, in the following article published in Cell Metabolism, the third influential factor in the field of cell biology, taking NMN can effectively reduce the age-related physiological decline of mice, such as inhibiting age-related weight gain, enhancing energy metabolism, promoting physical activity, improving insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid mass spectrometry, and improving eye function.
In a patent application filed by Bangtai Biology, a manufacturer of NMN, adding NMN to the diet of mice can actually prolong their life span by about 29%.
The results of animal experiments have delighted countless scientists. What about the clinical data of NMN when it comes to human oral administration?
In this study conducted by researchers at the University of Tokyo, which has not been officially published, healthy elderly subjects took 250mg of NMN or placebo orally for 12 weeks.
After 12 weeks, NMN significantly increased the levels of NAD+and NAD+metabolites in the blood. It also significantly improved the strength of some muscles and some sports abilities, such as gait speed, left hand grip strength, and right ear hearing.
Although there is no obvious data in mice, human clinical experiments also show the role of NMN. For this reason, many NMN oral health products can be found in foreign markets, and can also be found on e-commerce platforms.
Some advertisements exaggerate the promotion of NMN as "anti-aging medicine", "prevention of Alzheimer's disease" and "repair of DNA", which has also been explicitly prohibited by our country.
However, up to now, the clinical research of NMN and NAD+is still relatively insufficient, and the efficacy and mechanism of anti-aging and DNA repair have not yet been applied to humans on a large scale, so the effect of practical application needs further study.
Is NMN reliable as a cosmetic raw material?
So what kind of surprise will NMN bring us when it is used as a cosmetic raw material?
On January 24th this year, a model called“ β- Nicotinamide mononucleotides ", that is, NMN's new cosmetics raw materials have been quietly filed and entered the monitoring period. Coincidentally, more than two months later, another β- Nicotinamide mononucleotides also applied for filing on March 29.
Previously, Japanese DHC research showed that when the content of NAD+in the skin is stable, it can prevent the damage of ultraviolet radiation to keratinocytes and help prevent and treat skin photoaging.
And then look at the patents related to NMN. According to the technical requirements of NMN filed by Yuyao Raffles, the NMN raw materials produced by the company are used as skin protectants, humectants and antioxidants, with a maximum use concentration of 3%.
In another technical requirement of Kangying cranberry filed with NMN, NMN's raw materials are used for skin protectants and humectants, with a maximum concentration of 10%.
So NMN will be used as skin protector, antioxidant and humectant in cosmetics.
In addition, a domestic manufacturer of NMN, Bangtai Biological, applied for the anti-aging patent of the skin care product composition containing NMN, and provided the skin care product containing 10% NMN to the elderly (about 60 years old), middle-aged (about 45 years old), and young (about 25 years old) for a trial period of 2 months in three groups (10 people in each group).
Use it every morning and evening. After one week, the skin at the application site is obviously white and tender, with increased moisture:
Among them, the original acne symptoms of 5 subjects in the youth group were significantly relieved, and the symptoms of 4 subjects disappeared after two months; The skin wrinkles of 7 people in the middle age group were significantly reduced; In the elderly group, 6 people's color spots were significantly reduced, and wrinkles and skin relaxation were improved.
It seems that the effect is OK? Let's see if it is worth buying when it is applied to products:
Is NMN really useful in skin care products?
A casual search of skin care products with NMN raw materials as the main ingredient can find some very expensive products. For example, the following facial mask costs 599 yuan and only 5 pieces
Hiss The price It's really a cold sweat. However, if it can really achieve its claimed efficacy, it is not impossible to spend a lot of money.
However, when we interviewed Professor Chai Yonghai of Shaanxi Normal University, the head of the leading team of NMN research in China, we got a relatively objective answer: At present, the use effect of NMN in cosmetics still needs more data to further support.
We should consider the use of NMN in cosmetics from several factors:
The bioavailability of NMN transdermal absorption still needs further study.
As a star molecule of anti-aging, NMN has been widely studied in recent years. The application of NMN in the field of skin also began to attract researchers' interest. However, there are few literature reports on clinical data of NMN skin care. Although NMN can be converted into NAD+in human body, whether external NMN can be converted into NAD+in skin cells, or whether the effect of NMN for external use in skin needs to be further confirmed by scientific research. In addition, the transdermal absorption mechanism of NMN and its bioavailability need to be clearly studied before the application of NMN in cosmetics. Although some leading experts have begun to study human clinical and percutaneous absorption, more data and time are needed to support the effect of external NMN skin care.
02 NMN is a highly polar molecule with high solubility in water, but low solubility in oil and other non-polar solvents.
NMN is a small molecule with very large polarity, which is easy to dissolve in water, but difficult to dissolve in most oils and non-polar solvents. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve high concentration of NMN added to face cream. However, NMN with low addition is difficult to play its role. Regardless of the dose, we cannot talk about the efficacy, so we should be careful of the "conceptual" addition of NMN on the market.
03 NMN has thermal instability and acid instability, so it has high requirements on the acidity and alkalinity of the formula.
NMN is β- Nicotinamide mononucleotide, with pH value between 3 and 4, has the characteristics of thermal instability and acid instability. Under acidic conditions, NMN is easily hydrolyzed to nicotinamide. Proper pH value is an important condition for NMN to maintain relative stability. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly control the acidity and alkalinity of products added with NMN. Furthermore, proper pH value is also an important prerequisite for developing skin care products suitable for human body.
04 The purity of NMN raw material has an important impact on the effect of cosmetics with NMN as the main functional ingredient.
Therefore, products with NMN as the core need to ensure the purity and concentration of their raw materials to prevent the phenomenon of substandard conceptual addition.
05 For products added with NMN, the stability of NMN shelf life is the core issue.
Because NMN is relatively unstable, if it is improperly formulated or stored, it may be inactivated before reaching consumers.
At present, there are few brands directly using NMN both at home and abroad, and the effective type of the formula is still doubtful. At present, the concept is still more than the efficacy.
However, the NAD+mentioned at the beginning of our article that can delay aging can still be improved by skin care products. Recently, there has been a good ingredient specially developed in skin care products to increase the content of NAD+in the skin - myristyl nicotinate.